The Health and Well-being Impact of Regional Funding in Wales

This report focuses specifically on the health and well-being impact of the loss of European Union (EU) Structural Funds and the risks and opportunities presented by a replacement scheme. It aims to inform national, regional and local decision makers in Wales, particularly those involved in the allocation and management of future regional funding schemes. The report contains key insights on the current importance of the EU Structural Funds for the health and well-being of local areas with a focus on different population groups.

Authors: Mischa Van Eimeren, Laura Morgan+ 2 more
, Sumina Azam, Mark Bellis

Rising to the Triple Challenge of Brexit, COVID-19 and Climate Change for health, well-being and equity in Wales, Spotlight on: Rural Communities

A new report published by Public Health Wales highlights how the combined influences of Brexit, Coronavirus and climate change will potentially see rural communities in Wales experience a time of great change, with both opportunities and negative impacts to navigate.

Authors: Liz Green, Kathryn Ashton+ 7 more
, Michael Fletcher, Laura Evans, Tracy Evans, Lee Parry-Williams, Sumina Azam, Adam Jones, Mark Bellis

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – March 2022

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. Survey reports aimed to provide data representative of the Welsh population and data are adjusted to represent the Welsh population by age, sex and deprivation.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Natasha Judd

Sustainability Improvement for Teams (SIFT): Healthy Environment Workshop

The SIFT Healthy Environment workshop provides an opportunity for teams to identify their environmental impacts and do something to reduce them. It not only looks at the activity of the whole team but also of the individuals that form the team.

The SIFT Healthy Environment workshop is based on four strategic themes (decarbonisation, biodiversity, zero waste and climate change) to enable teams to develop an action plan to reduce their environmental impact and contribute to any existing environmental management systems within their organisation.

Author: Tracy Evans

International Horizon Scanning and Learning – Summary Report on The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health and Increasing Vulnerability

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed challenges to societies, health systems and decision-makers worldwide and has resulted in long-term economic, social and health and well-being impacts. Mental health has been negatively affected across all-age groups exacerbating existing health inequalities.
This report reviews and summarises the international evidence from the International Horizon Scanning and Learning reports on the direct and indirect impact of COVID-19 on mental health, mental health services and increasing vulnerability.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Mariana Dyakova+ 7 more
, Claire Beynon, Anna Stielke, Abigail Instone, James Allen, Andrew Cotter-Roberts, Mischa Van Eimeren, Benjamin Bainham

An evaluation of a short film promoting kindness in Wales during COVID-19 restrictions #TimeToBeKind

In response to successive COVID-19 restrictions in Wales, the Welsh ACE Support Hub launched the #TimeToBeKind campaign in March 2021. The campaign used a short film broadcast on national television and promoted on social media to encourage behaviour change for kindness. This manuscript evaluates the #TimeToBeKind campaign film. Findings strongly indicated that film can be an effective tool to promote behaviour change for kindness and that even films that provoke strong emotional reactions can be positively perceived and lead to behaviour change. The findings of the evaluation are relevant to how public health messaging can adapt and utilise online space to target individuals and promote behaviour change.

Authors: Kat Ford, Mark Bellis+ 2 more
, Rebecca Hill, Karen Hughes

Effects of multi-component programmes in preventing sales of alcohol to intoxicated patrons in nightlife settings in the United Kingdom

This study examined the impacts of multi-component nightlife interventions – including community mobilisation, responsible beverage server training and law enforcement approaches – to reduce over-service of alcohol in four nightlife settings in England and Wales. It found that multi-component interventions were associated with significant increases in service refusal, with effects being stronger for interventions that included enhanced law enforcement, particularly if all intervention components were implemented.

Authors: Zara Quigg, Nadia Butler+ 2 more
, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis

International Horizon Scanning and Learning to Inform Wales’ COVID-19 Public Health Response and Recovery – March 2022

The International Horizon Scanning and Learning work stream was initiated as a product of, and to inform upon, the evolving COVID-19 public health response and recovery plans in Wales. It focuses on COVID-19 international evidence, experience, measures and transition/recovery approaches, to understand and explore solutions for addressing the on-going and emerging health, wellbeing, social and economic impacts (potential harms and benefits).
Topics of focus are:
– COVID-19 vaccination equity
– COVID-19 excess mortality

Authors: Mark Bellis, Mariana Dyakova+ 1 more
, Claire Beynon

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – February 2022

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. Survey reports aimed to provide data representative of the Welsh population and data are adjusted to represent the Welsh population by age, sex and deprivation.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Natasha Judd

What Works to Prevent Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) at the Community Level? An Evidence Review and Mapping Exercise

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are stressful experiences that occur during childhood which directly hurt a child (for example, maltreatment) or affect them through the environment in which they live (for example exposure to domestic violence). The aim of this project is to identify effective interventions at the community level relating to the prevention of ACEs and to identify initiatives undertaken across Wales.

Authors: Samia Addis, Troy Wey+ 2 more
, Ellie Toll, Joanne C. Hopkins

Maternal adverse childhood experiences and their association with preterm birth: secondary analysis of data from universal health visiting

Being born before full gestation can have short-term and life-long health implications, yet it remains difficult to determine the risk of preterm birth among expectant mothers. Across different health settings, increasing attention is given to the health and behavioural consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse or neglect, or exposure to harmful household environments (e.g. in which caregivers abuse alcohol), and the potential value of understanding these hidden harms when supporting individuals and families. A large international evidence base describes the association between childhood adversity and early years outcomes for mothers and children. However, the relationship between maternal ACEs and preterm birth has received far less attention.

Authors: Katie Hardcastle, Kat Ford+ 1 more
, Mark Bellis

‘Trauma-informed’: Identifying Key Language and Terminology through a Review of the Literature

Although the link between traumatic events and poor health outcomes is consistently documented, the terminology and components of trauma-related approaches and practices studied by researchers and used by practitioners are less clearly and consistently presented. The aim of this study is to explore the terminology and language in use around the concept of trauma-informed.

Authors: Samia Addis, Tegan Brierley-Sollis+ 2 more
, Vicky Jones, Caroline Hughes

International Horizon Scanning and Learning – Summary Report On the impact of COVID-19 on increasing the Health Gap and Vulnerability

This report reviews the international evidence from the International Horizon Scanning and Learning reports on the direct and indirect impact of COVID-19 increasing the health gap. It focuses on inequalities and vulnerable groups to better understand and address the unequal distribution of indirect impacts resulting from the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges for populations, health systems and governments worldwide which have resulted in lasting economic, social and health impacts. Health inequities have been exacerbated, with certain population groups disproportionately affected by levels of infection, hospitalisation and deaths from COVID-19. Furthermore, some groups have also experienced unequal indirect impacts resulting from the pandemic and the measures undertaken to contain it. Underlying factors contributing to the unequal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic include but are not limited to, level of deprivation, education, health status and financial resources.

Authors: Mariana Dyakova, Claire Beynon+ 9 more
, Mark Bellis, Anna Stielke, Abigail Instone, James Allen, Andrew Cotter-Roberts, Mischa Van Eimeren, Benjamin Bainham, Angie Kirby, Lauren Couzens

Maximising health and well-being opportunities for spatial planning in the COVID-19 pandemic recovery

The pandemic has explicitly exposed, and in some examples, exacerbated the health, well-being and inequalities impacts across the population which are derived from determinants such as the environment, land use, transport, economy and housing. This report aims to highlight the major positive and negative health impacts of spatial planning policies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the population of Wales, learn from these, any positive interventions and co-benefits in order to shape a healthier future environment for all.

Authors: Liz Green, Sue Toner+ 7 more
, Laura Evans, Lee Parry-Williams, Tom Johnson, Gemma Christian, Cheryl Williams, Sumina Azam, Mark Bellis

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – January 2022

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. Survey reports aimed to provide data representative of the Welsh population and data are adjusted to represent the Welsh population by age, sex and deprivation.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Natasha Judd

Associations between adverse childhood experiences, attitudes towards COVID-19 restrictions and vaccine hesitancy: a cross-sectional study

Childhood adversity has been shown to be linked to poorer mental well-being, with some studies suggesting it may lead to reduced trust in health and other public services. Research conducted with adults in Wales identified that vaccine hesitancy was three times higher among people who had experienced four or more types of childhood trauma than it was among those who hadn’t experienced any.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 4 more
, Kat Ford, Hannah Madden, Freya Glendinning, Sara Wood

International Horizon Scanning and Learning to Inform Wales’ COVID-19 Public Health Response and Recovery – 27 January 2022

The International Horizon Scanning and Learning work stream was initiated as a product of, and to inform upon, the evolving COVID-19 public health response and recovery plans in Wales. It focuses on COVID-19 international evidence, experience, measures and transition/recovery approaches, to understand and explore solutions for addressing the on-going and emerging health, wellbeing, social and economic impacts (potential harms and benefits).
Topics of focus are:
– The impact of Covid-19 on children

Authors: Mark Bellis, Mariana Dyakova+ 1 more
, Claire Beynon

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – December 21

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. Survey reports aimed to provide data representative of the Welsh population and data are adjusted to represent the Welsh population by age, sex and deprivation.

Authors: Karen Hughes, Natasha Judd+ 1 more
, Mark Bellis

The importance of household energy efficiency for health and well-being

The discussion paper highlights how, at present, Wales’ housing stock is some of the least energy efficient in Europe. This paper has highlighted that efforts to improve household energy efficiency can have a positive impact on ambitions for decarbonisation and climate change, and can also lead to improvements in health and well-being.

Authors: Adam Jones, Leanna Davies

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in Bolton: Impacts on health, wellbeing and resilience

There is substantial evidence identifying the detrimental impacts that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on individuals’ health, wellbeing and broader life opportunities. A number of studies in the UK have identified the prevalence and impacts of ACEs at a national level, yet few studies have been undertaken at a local level. Understanding how local populations are affected by ACEs can enable local authorities and partnerships to tailor their support services, targeting resources to the health needs of the populations they serve. This study was implemented by Public Health Wales and Bangor University on behalf of Bolton Council to understand the impact of ACEs on the health and wellbeing of adults in the Bolton Local Authority area. The study explores:
■ The prevalence of ACEs in Bolton Local Authority;
■ Relationships between ACEs and health and wellbeing;
■ Resilience factors that may offer protection against the harmful impacts of ACEs.

Authors: Kat Ford, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Mark Bellis

An exploration of the trauma informed terminology and approaches being used by significant projects, programmes and interventions in Wales

There is national and international recognition of the importance of working in a trauma informed way when interacting with others, and public statements to that effect by services and organisations in Wales. The ACE Support Hub are working with Traumatic Stress Wales to develop a “National Skills and Knowledge Framework to Respond to Trauma”. As part of this framework, and in line with the recommendation from Welsh Government, the ACE Support Hub have identified a need to better understand the use of trauma informed terminology, the definitions being attributed to the terminology and the approaches being implemented across programmes, projects and interventions (PPIs) in Wales.

Authors: Alex Walker, Vicky Jones+ 1 more
, Joanne C. Hopkins

International Horizon Scanning and Learning to Inform Wales’ COVID-19 Public Health Response and Recovery – 17 December 2021

The International Horizon Scanning and Learning work stream was initiated as a product of, and to inform upon, the evolving COVID-19 public health response and recovery plans in Wales. It focuses on COVID-19 international evidence, experience, measures and transition/recovery approaches, to understand and explore solutions for addressing the on-going and emerging health, wellbeing, social and economic impacts (potential harms and benefits).
Topics of focus are:
– COVID-19 scientific advice to governments
– The impact of COVID-19 on ethnic minority groups

Authors: Mark Bellis, Mariana Dyakova+ 1 more
, Claire Beynon

Cost of Health Inequality to the NHS in Wales. Report 1: Cost Associated with Inequality in Hospital Service Utilisation

This report aims to estimate the financial cost associated with inequality in hospital service utilisation to the NHS in Wales to help inform decision-making and resource prioritisation towards prevention and early intervention through an equity lens, contributing to COVID-19 sustainable and inclusive recovery.
The report is accompanied by an interactive dashboard, allowing users to explore in detail, the costs associated with inequality by service category, sex, age and level of deprivation.
Please note, the dashboard is optimised for use on desktop devices.

Authors: Rajendra Kadel, Oliver Darlington+ 5 more
, James Allen, Benjamin Bainham, Rebecca Masters, Mariana Dyakova, Mark Bellis

No place like home? Exploring the health and well-being impact of COVID-19 on housing and housing insecurity

This comprehensive and participatory Health Impact Assessment (HIA) explores the health and well-being impact of COVID-19 on housing and housing insecurity, and looks at the importance of having a consistent home that is of good quality, affordable, and feels safe. It also considers security of tenure in relation to stability, and being able to maintain a roof over one’s head and ultimately prevent homelessness. It is the third in a series, which focus on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the population of Wales including the ‘Staying at Home and Social Distancing Policy’ and the impact of home and agile working. This report can be read in conjunction with these and the sections on housing and home working within them.

Authors: Louise Woodfine, Liz Green+ 9 more
, Laura Evans, Lee Parry-Williams, Christian Heathcote-Elliott, Charlotte Grey, Yoric Irving-Clarke, Matthew Kennedy, Catherine May, Sumina Azam, Mark Bellis

International Horizon Scanning and Learning to Inform Wales’ COVID-19 Public Health Response and Recovery – 25 November 2021

The International Horizon Scanning and Learning work stream was initiated as a product of, and to inform upon, the evolving COVID-19 public health response and recovery plans in Wales. It focuses on COVID-19 international evidence, experience, measures and transition/recovery approaches, to understand and explore solutions for addressing the on-going and emerging health, wellbeing, social and economic impacts (potential harms and benefits).
Topics of focus are:
• Winter 2021/22 COVID-19 planning
• The impact of COVID-19 on older people

Authors: Mark Bellis, Mariana Dyakova+ 1 more
, Claire Beynon

Inequality in a Future Wales: Areas for action in work, climate and demographic change

This report explores how three key trends – changes to how we work, climate change and demographic change – may affect inequalities in a future Wales. The research was based on a rapid review of literature evidence and discussions with organisations that advocate for greater equality.

Authors: Sara MacBride-Stewart, Alison Parken

Health and wellbeing impacts of climate change Infographic

Public Health Wales has published a series of infographics highlighting the importance of climate change impact on the health and wellbeing of the population of Wales, and to support public bodies and businesses to take action to address any impacts.

Launched to coincide with the Council of Parties 26 (COP26), the infographics focus on the relationships between the natural environment and health, the population groups affected and some of the key health and wellbeing impacts of climate change and those population groups who could be affected.

Authors: Nerys Edmunds, Liz Green

Green Opportunities Autumn 2021

Green Opportunities is a new e-briefing from the Health and Sustainability Hub. The quarterly updates capture learning to aid Wales’ green recovery from COVID-19, identifying sustainable opportunities to support population health.

The autumn edition focuses on biodiversity.

Authors: Tracy Evans, Richard Lewis