Examining relationships between adverse childhood experiences and coping during the cost-of-living crisis using a national cross-sectional survey in Wales, UK

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful experiences during childhood such as child maltreatment and exposure to household difficulties including domestic violence, substance abuse, mental illness and family members being in prison. This study analysed data collected from 1,880 adult residents across Wales. It found that those who reported multiple ACEs in their childhood were significantly more likely to perceive they would be unable to cope financially during the cost-of-living crisis, independent of factors including household income level, employment status and residential deprivation.

Authors: Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis+ 4 more
, Katie Cresswell, Rebecca Hill, Kat Ford, Joanne C. Hopkins

Adverse childhood experiences and engagement with healthcare services: Findings from a survey of adults in Wales and England

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer health outcomes yet their association with healthcare engagement remains relatively underexplored, particularly within the UK. This report presents the findings of an online survey with adults resident in Wales and England, developed to explore the association between ACEs and healthcare engagement, including comfort in the use of healthcare services.

Authors: Kat Ford, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Katie Cresswell, Rebekah Amos, Mark Bellis

The rising cost of living and health and wellbeing in Wales: a national survey

Households across Wales and worldwide are experiencing an increase in the cost of living. Since late 2021, price rises for basic items such as food and energy have outstripped increases in average wages and welfare payments, leading to a fall in real disposable incomes. As a result, increasing pressure on household budgets is making it harder for people to afford the basics and is often referred to as a ‘cost of living crisis’. This report presents the findings of a survey developed to understand how the cost of living crisis is affecting health and wellbeing among the Welsh public; their approaches and decision-making relating to rising living costs; and their awareness of and access to financial support and schemes.

Authors: Rebecca Hill, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Katie Cresswell, Kat Ford, Mark Bellis

ACEtimation-The Combined Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Violence, Health-Harming Behaviors, and Mental Ill-Health: Findings across England and Wales

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) encompass various adversities, e.g., physical and/or emotional abuse. Understanding the effects of different ACE types on various health outcomes can guide targeted prevention and intervention. We estimated the association between three categories of ACEs in isolation and when they co-occurred. Specifically, the relationship between child maltreatment, witnessing violence, and household dysfunction and the risk of being involved in violence, engaging in health-harming behaviors, and experiencing mental ill-health.

Authors: Rebekah Amos, Katie Cresswell+ 2 more
, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis

Has Brexit changed detection and prevention of illicit trade in drugs, alcohol, and tobacco in Wales?

This briefing by Public Health Wales summarises the international systems the UK and Wales participated in to tackle illicit alcohol, tobacco, and drugs before Brexit. It will then explore how these have changed post-Brexit and what potential impact that may have on health and well-being in Wales.

Authors: Katie Cresswell, Louisa Petchey+ 1 more
, Leah Silva

Comparing relationships between single types of adverse childhood experiences and health related outcomes across the life course: a combined primary data study of eight surveys

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) show strong cumulative associations with ill-health across the life course. Harms can arise even in those exposed to a single ACE type but few studies examine such exposure. For individuals experiencing a single ACE type, we examine which ACEs are most strongly related to different health harms.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 2 more
, Katie Cresswell, Kat Ford

Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Lifetime Experience of Car Crashes and Burns: A Cross-Sectional Study

Using a UK general population sample, this study has identified relationships between exposure to ACEs and lifetime experience of car crashes and burns; two major markers of unintentional injury. Findings highlight the need for effective interventions to prevent ACEs and reduce their impacts on health and well-being. A better understanding of the relationships between ACEs and unintentional injury, and the mechanisms that link childhood adversity to injury risks, can benefit the development of multifaceted approaches to injury prevention.

Authors: Kat Ford, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Katie Cresswell, Nel Griffith, Mark Bellis

Has Brexit changed how Wales participates in global infectious disease prevention, preparedness and response?

The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed infectious diseases to the top of government agendas around the world. Simultaneously, Brexit has influenced how the UK, and therefore Wales collaborates with international partners on infectious diseases.
Timelines for Brexit and the COVID-19 pandemic overlapped, many post-Brexit arrangements were still in development. The next international public health emergency will test the new systems in Wales/the UK.
Brexit has been shown to have the potential to impact on the health and well-being of the Welsh population and is therefore a consideration in the context of infectious disease prevention, preparedness and response.
This briefing explores how the UK’s exit from the EU has changed its international relationships and processes for dealing with future infectious disease threats.

Authors: Katie Cresswell, Louisa Petchey

What could post-Brexit trade agreements mean for public health in Wales?

This briefing is for public health professionals and officials working on public health policy who are interested in how Brexit and trade agreements may affect their work, and for UK and Welsh officials working in trade policy to raise awareness of the relevance of trade to the health and well-being of the people of Wales.

Authors: Louisa Petchey, Katie Cresswell

Health Needs Assessment: COVID-19 and its impact on Children and Young People’s Experience of Violence and ACEs

This research, delivered by the Wales Violence Prevention Unit with funding from Public Health Wales, highlights how COVID-19 has resulted in many challenges for children and young people, including changes to routine, disruption to education and a reduction in access to support services and social activities. Evidence indicates that these challenges, together with other factors such as home life and existing wellbeing concerns, will likely have increased the risk of exposure to violence and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), particularly among the most vulnerable children and young people.

Authors: Katie Cresswell, Emma Barton+ 3 more
, Lara Snowdon, Annemarie Newbury, Laura Cowley