Time to Talk Public Health: December 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a national panel of Welsh residents aged 16+ years established by Public Health Wales enabling regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. The panel is designed to be broadly representative of the Welsh population by age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity and health board. This report presents findings from the December 2023 survey covering: Flu and COVID-19 vaccines, Vaccination and pregnancy, NHS 111 Wales Service, and Primary Care Clusters.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Lewis Brace

Understanding the burden and costs of unintentional injuries and violence to European health systems

Injuries and violence are a major public health problem in the WHO European Region. Violence is a leading cause of death and with injury, is a major contributor to health care costs. Identifying the burden and costs of injuries and violence to the health care system can be a useful starting point for demonstrating the ‘size of the problem’ to policy makers and in influencing decision-making. This project aimed to estimate the costs of injuries and violence to the health care systems across the WHO European Region. The objectives were to review costing approaches used in the existing literature, identify data to enable robust estimates of the costs of injury and violence and to develop an analytical framework that can be applied uniformly across WHO European Region countries.

Authors: Lisa Jones, Zoe Bell+ 3 more
, Zara Quigg, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis
Time to Talk Public Health Wales Oct 23 Panel Survey published Dec 23

Time to Talk Public Health: October 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a national panel of Welsh residents aged 16+ years established by Public Health Wales enabling regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. The panel is designed to be broadly representative of the Welsh population by age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity and health board. This report presents findings from the October 2023 survey covering: 20mph speed limits, vaping, use of antibiotics, HIV, vaccines, addressing inequalities and coronavirus.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes
Front cover of 'Everybody's Business' - publication by PHW WHO CC

Everybody’s Business: Early Intervention Crime Reduction

This report aims to aid understanding of how multi-agency partners, including police and justice, health and social care, local government, education, and the third sector, can work together to prevent harms that cross the public health and criminal justice landscape, such as violence, substance use and mental health. It provides examples of ways in which multi-agency partners can work to implement whole system approaches to addressing harm and examines areas where early intervention and preventative policing approaches have been or are likely to be successful.

Authors: Zara Quigg, Chloe Smith+ 5 more
, Karen Hughes, Charley Wilson, Nadia Butler, Lisa Jones, Mark Bellis
Front cover of English journal: Parental Technoference

Parental technoference and adolescents’ mental health and violent behaviour: a scoping review

The term ‘technoference’ refers to habitual interferences and disruptions within interpersonal relationships or time spent together due to use of electronic devices. Emerging evidence suggests associations between parental technoference and young people’s mental health and violent behaviours. This scoping review sought to summarise the existing literature. Findings suggest that parents should be aware of the environment in which they use electronic devices as their use can potentially, directly and indirectly, influence adolescent mental health and violent behaviours. Further research into the potential caveats of parental technoference could support the development of evidence-informed guidelines for parental management of electronic devices.

Authors: Donna Dixon, Catherine Sharp+ 2 more
, Karen Hughes, J. Carl. Hughes

A practical handbook on Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Delivering prevention, building resilience and developing trauma-informed systems: A resource for professionals and organisations

This new resource aims to support action on ACEs by providing practical advice on implementing work to prevent ACEs, build resilience, and develop trauma-informed organisations, sectors and systems. It supports the development of a trauma-informed society that is invested in action to prevent ACEs and better support those affected by them.

Authors: Sara Wood, Hayley Janssen+ 3 more
, Karen Hughes, Jonathon Passmore, Mark Bellis

The rising cost of living and health and wellbeing in Wales: a national survey

Households across Wales and worldwide are experiencing an increase in the cost of living. Since late 2021, price rises for basic items such as food and energy have outstripped increases in average wages and welfare payments, leading to a fall in real disposable incomes. As a result, increasing pressure on household budgets is making it harder for people to afford the basics and is often referred to as a ‘cost of living crisis’. This report presents the findings of a survey developed to understand how the cost of living crisis is affecting health and wellbeing among the Welsh public; their approaches and decision-making relating to rising living costs; and their awareness of and access to financial support and schemes.

Authors: Rebecca Hill, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Katie Cresswell, Kat Ford, Mark Bellis

Identifying evidence to support action to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health: A systematic scoping and mapping review

This report examines the review-level evidence that is available to guide action on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health. Evidence about public health interventions, programmes and policies applied to populations, groups and other geographically defined areas or jurisdictions was sought to explore whether they preferentially improve the health outcomes of people experiencing socioeconomic inequalities.

Authors: Lisa Jones, Mark Bellis+ 3 more
, Rebecca Hill, Karen Hughes, Sara Wood

Time to Talk Public Health: August 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a national panel of Welsh residents aged 16+ years established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. The panel is designed to be broadly representative of the Welsh population by age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity and health board. This report presents findings from the August 2023 survey covering: Emergency Departments, Campaigns, Cost of Living, Dental Health, Bowel Screening, and Post-natal Weight Management.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Measuring changes in adult health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and their relationship with adverse childhood experiences and current social assets: a cross-sectional survey

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can impact mental and physical health, leaving people with less resilience to health challenges across the life-course. This study examines whether individuals’ levels and changes in levels of mental health, physical health and sleep quality reported across the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with ACEs and moderated by social assets such as having trusted family and friends.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 2 more
, Kat Ford, Helen Lowey

ACEtimation-The Combined Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Violence, Health-Harming Behaviors, and Mental Ill-Health: Findings across England and Wales

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) encompass various adversities, e.g., physical and/or emotional abuse. Understanding the effects of different ACE types on various health outcomes can guide targeted prevention and intervention. We estimated the association between three categories of ACEs in isolation and when they co-occurred. Specifically, the relationship between child maltreatment, witnessing violence, and household dysfunction and the risk of being involved in violence, engaging in health-harming behaviors, and experiencing mental ill-health.

Authors: Rebekah Amos, Katie Cresswell+ 2 more
, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis

Time to Talk Public Health: June 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a national panel of Welsh residents aged 16+ years established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. The panel is designed to be broadly representative of the Welsh population by age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity and health board. This report presents findings from the June 2023 survey covering: NHS waiting lists, Housing, Witnessing violence, Mental well-being, Primary care.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Time to Talk Public Health: February – March 2023 Panel Survey Findings Report 2

Time to Talk Public Health is a nationally representative panel of Welsh residents aged 16+ years established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. In April we published a report presenting findings from the February – March 2023 survey which focused on screening, sustainability, campaigns and current concerns. This second report from the February – March 2023 survey is focused on findings relating to food environments and healthy weight.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Is parental unemployment associated with increased risk of adverse childhood experiences? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Unemployment has adverse consequences for families and can put children at risk of harm. This review examines associations between parental unemployment and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Findings highlight that increasing employment opportunities and parental support interventions may help break multigenerational cycles of ACEs.

Authors: Natasha Judd, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Mark Bellis, Katie Hardcastle, Rebekah Amos

Time to Talk Public Health: February – March 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a new nationally representative panel of Welsh residents established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice. This report presents findings from the February – March 2023 survey, covering issues including screening, sustainability, campaigns and current concerns. The following topics were also asked in the survey: food environments, healthy weight and Healthy Weight Healthy You campaign, however, their findings will be reported internally initially and published at a later date.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Comparing relationships between single types of adverse childhood experiences and health related outcomes across the life course: a combined primary data study of eight surveys

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) show strong cumulative associations with ill-health across the life course. Harms can arise even in those exposed to a single ACE type but few studies examine such exposure. For individuals experiencing a single ACE type, we examine which ACEs are most strongly related to different health harms.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 2 more
, Katie Cresswell, Kat Ford

Tackling Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) State of the Art and Options for Action

This new report brings together what is known about ACEs across Europe and internationally, showing the on-going toxic impact that ACEs can have across the life course and how ACEs and their consequences can be prevented. The report supports the development of a trauma-informed society that is invested in action to prevent ACEs and better support those affected by them.

Authors: Sara Wood, Mark Bellis+ 3 more
, Karen Hughes, Zara Quigg, Nadia Butler

Time to Talk Public Health: January 2023 Panel Survey Findings

Time to Talk Public Health is a new nationally representative panel of Welsh residents established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice.
This month’s survey covered mental well-being, vaccines, risk-taking behaviour and health inequalities.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Time to Talk Public Health: Panel Recruitment Survey

Time to Talk Public Health is a new nationally representative panel of Welsh residents established by Public Health Wales to enable regular public engagement to inform public health policy and practice.
This report presents the demographics of the 2,000 panel members recruited during the first stage of the project. Findings from the initial recruitment survey, focusing on cost of living, coronavirus and priorities for Public Health Wales, are also reported.

Authors: Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes

Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Lifetime Experience of Car Crashes and Burns: A Cross-Sectional Study

Using a UK general population sample, this study has identified relationships between exposure to ACEs and lifetime experience of car crashes and burns; two major markers of unintentional injury. Findings highlight the need for effective interventions to prevent ACEs and reduce their impacts on health and well-being. A better understanding of the relationships between ACEs and unintentional injury, and the mechanisms that link childhood adversity to injury risks, can benefit the development of multifaceted approaches to injury prevention.

Authors: Kat Ford, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Katie Cresswell, Nel Griffith, Mark Bellis

Parental adverse childhood experiences and perpetration of child physical punishment in Wales

In 2022, Wales joined the growing number of countries to ban physical punishment of children in all settings. Using data collected a year prior to legislative change, this study explores relationships between Welsh parents’ exposure to ACEs whilst growing up and their use of physical punishment towards children.

Authors: Karen Hughes, Kat Ford+ 2 more
, Mark Bellis, Rebekah Amos

Climate Change and Health in Wales: Views from the public

This report presents initial findings from a survey of adult residents in Wales on their perceptions of climate change and health. Whilst work to understand and mitigate climate change is gaining momentum in Wales, there remains a lack of information on population views and behaviours. Such data are critical for the co-creation of effective and acceptable approaches to climate change that help protect public health; the targeting of key messages and information; and the establishment of long-term solutions across Wales that will continue to be supported across multiple generations. To address this gap, a public survey was developed to seek the population’s views about climate change, its relationship with health, their current climate friendly behaviours, their willingness to engage in action, and views on policy solutions. This report presents initial findings from the survey, providing population-level views on climate change among adult residents in Wales.

Authors: Sara Wood, Karen Hughes+ 3 more
, Rebecca Hill, Natasha Judd, Mark Bellis

The public health impact of loneliness during the COVID‑19 pandemic

Social distancing measures have been effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19; however, they have imposed a significant burden on population mental health and well-being. This study established an association between loneliness and self-reported worsening health during the pandemic, and identified factors increasing the risk of loneliness. The effect that social control measures have on loneliness should influence the design of future public health policy.

Authors: James Allen, Oliver Darlington+ 2 more
, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – August 2022

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. This report presents trends in responses to a selection of core questions over the two year period, including: worry about coronavirus; mental and physical health; worry about finances; and perceptions of the national response. It examines differences in responses by deprivation, gender and age.

Authors: Karen Hughes, Natasha Judd+ 1 more
, Mark Bellis

Adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with poor sexual health outcomes: results from four cross-sectional surveys

Improving understanding of risk factors for risky sexual behaviour is fundamental to achieve better population sexual health. This study explored associations between ACEs and poor sexual health outcomes in the UK. Findings highlight the need for effective interventions to prevent and ameliorate the lifelong effects of ACEs. Trauma-informed relationships and sex education, sexual health services, and antenatal/postnatal services, particularly for teenagers and young parents, could provide opportunities to prevent ACEs and support those affected.

Authors: Sara Wood, Kat Ford+ 4 more
, Hannah Madden, Catherine Sharp, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis

The use of mobile phone applications to enhance personal safety from interpersonal violence – an overview of available smartphone applications in the United Kingdom

Interpersonal violence has devastating implications for individuals, families, and communities across the globe, placing a significant burden on health, justice, and social welfare systems. Smartphone technology may provide a platform for violence prevention interventions. This paper explores the evidence on the availability and user experience of UK smartphone applications aimed to prevent violence and improve personal safety. The findings have implications for the development of policy on applications to improve personal safety, especially given recent national policy (e.g. UK) discussions about their utility.

Authors: Kat Ford, Mark Bellis+ 3 more
, Natasha Judd, Nel Griffith, Karen Hughes

Adverse childhood experiences and COVID-19 in Bolton

This report seeks to explore, for the Bolton population, any association between ACE exposure and COVID-19 infection. It will also seek to identify if ACE exposure is associated with: trust in COVID-19 health information; attitudes towards, and compliance with COVID-19 restrictions (e.g. use of face coverings, social distancing); and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. A better understanding of such relationships will help local services understand how they can encourage compliance with public health restrictions and vaccine uptake; information crucial for targeting health messaging and the management of threats to public health, including future pandemics.

Authors: Kat Ford, Karen Hughes+ 2 more
, Hayley Janssen, Mark Bellis

Public Engagement Survey on Health and Wellbeing during Coronavirus Measures – March 2022

Public Health Wales conducted a public engagement telephone survey to ask members of the public in Wales how coronavirus and related control measures are affecting their health and wellbeing. Survey reports aimed to provide data representative of the Welsh population and data are adjusted to represent the Welsh population by age, sex and deprivation.

Authors: Mark Bellis, Karen Hughes+ 1 more
, Natasha Judd

An evaluation of a short film promoting kindness in Wales during COVID-19 restrictions #TimeToBeKind

In response to successive COVID-19 restrictions in Wales, the Welsh ACE Support Hub launched the #TimeToBeKind campaign in March 2021. The campaign used a short film broadcast on national television and promoted on social media to encourage behaviour change for kindness. This manuscript evaluates the #TimeToBeKind campaign film. Findings strongly indicated that film can be an effective tool to promote behaviour change for kindness and that even films that provoke strong emotional reactions can be positively perceived and lead to behaviour change. The findings of the evaluation are relevant to how public health messaging can adapt and utilise online space to target individuals and promote behaviour change.

Authors: Kat Ford, Mark Bellis+ 2 more
, Rebecca Hill, Karen Hughes